More details
Hide details
Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic, World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw/Kajetany, Poland
Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Clinic, World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw/Kajetany, Poland
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article;
Submission date: 2023-05-25
Final revision date: 2023-10-25
Acceptance date: 2023-11-16
Online publication date: 2023-12-22
Publication date: 2023-12-22
Corresponding author
Paulina Krasnodębska   

Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Mochnackiego 10, 02-042, Warsaw, Poland
J Hear Sci 2023;13(4):46-51
Evaluation of nasal resonance is an important part of everyday otolaryngological, phoniatric, and speech therapy practice. It allows the detection and monitoring of anatomical and functional abnormalities in the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities. Nasal resonance can be objectively measured by assessing acoustic energy emitted by each of the subject’s nose and mouth. The ratio is called nasalance. The aim of this study was to develop normative values of nasal resonance on a digital device while adults were reading aloud Polish-language material.

Material and methods:
The study included 51 patients. Patients were tested with three language tests developed by Gąsiorek in 1996. Nasal resonance was measured using a Nasometer II (Model 6450) from Pentax Medical.

The mean nasalance in the vowel test was 18.8% (SD = 7.8%). The mean nasalance during the test based on sentences was 14.3% (SD = 4.0%), and for reading continuous text it was 11.7% (SD = 3.7%). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between men and women on each test. The limiting normative value for nasalance was determined to be 20% in the sentence test (test III of Gąsiorek 1996).

1. Preliminary normative values of nasal resonance for Polish adults have been established based on current methodology. 2. Language tests developed and already in use can be applied to modern digital devices.

Pruszewicz A, Obrębowski A. [Outline of clinical phoniatry]. Poznań: Uniwersytet Medyczny w Poznaniu; 2019 [in Polish].
Selvaraj JL. Severe dysarthria due to hyponatremia and extrapontine demyelination: a single case study. J Hear Sci, 2021; 11(2): 71–4. https://doi.org/10.17430/JHS.2....
Sinko K, Gruber M, Jagsch R, Roesner I, Baumann A, Wutzl A, Denk-Linnert D. Assessment of nasalance and nasality in patients with a repaired cleft palate. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2017; 274(7): 2845–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405....
Gąsiorek J, Pruszewicz A, Obrębowski A. [Verbal tests for nasal resonance testing]. Otolaryngol Pol, 1996; 4: 409–16 [in Polish].
Domeracka-Kołodziej A, Maniecka-Aleksandrowicz B, Zielnik-Jurkiewicz B, Zawadzka R, Rakowska M, Różak-Komorowska A, et al. [Evaluation of nasalance and nasality in children before and after adenoidectomy or adenotonsilotomy]. Otolaryngology, 2007; 6(3): 135–41 [in Polish].
Gąsiorek J, Pruszewicz A, Obrębowski A. [A device for objective assessment of open nasality with automatic recording]. Otolaryngol Pol, 1994; 48(4): 386–90 [in Polish].
Krasnodębska P, Nikiel K, Będziński W, Milewska M, Szkiełkowska A, Miaśkiewicz B. [Digital measurement of nasal resonance in the adult Polish population]. Now Audiofonol, 2021; 10(2): 19–24 [in Polish]. https://doi.org/10.17431/10.2.....
Fletcher SG, Adams LE, McCutcheon MJ. Cleft palate speech assessment through oral–nasal acoustic measures. In: Bzoch K, editor. Communicative Disorders Related to Cleft Lip and Palate. Boston: College Hill Press; 1989, 246–57.
Mishima K, Sugii A, Yamada T, Imura H, Sugahara T. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance scores in a Japanese population. J Craniomaxillofac Surg, 2008; 36(1): 8–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms....
Lorenc A, Król D, Klessa K. An acoustic camera approach to studying nasality in speech: the case of Polish nasalized vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 2018; 144(6): 3603–17. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5084....
Woo ST, Park YB, Oh DH, Ha JW. Influence of the nasometric instrument structure on nasalance score. Appl Sci, 2019; 9(15): 3040. https://doi.org/10.3390/app915....
Alfwaress F, Kummer AW, Weinrich B. Nasalance scores for normal speakers of American English obtained by the Nasometer II using the MacKay–Kummer SNAP-R Test. Cleft Palate Craniofacial J, 2021; 59(6): 10556656211025406. https://doi.org/10.1177/105566....
Bae Y, Lee S, Velik K, Liu Y, Beck C, Fox R. Differences in nasalance and nasality perception between Texas South and Midland dialects. J Acoust Soc Am, 2020; 147(1): 568–78. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.000....
Wiskirska-Woźnica B. [Objectification possibilities of the phoniatric examination in speech disorders]. Otorynolaryngology, 2014; 13(3): 127–30 [in Polish].
Mik Ł, Lorenc A, Król D, Wielgat R, Święciński R, Jędryka R. Fusing the electromagnetic articulograph, high-speed video cameras and a 16-channel microphone array for speech analysis. Bull Pol Acad Sci Tech Sci, 2018; 66(3). https://doi.org/10.24425/12210...
Watterson T. The use of the nasometer and interpretation of nasalance scores. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 2020; 5(1): 155–63. https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_P....
Xu J, Kang Y, Park S, Yoon Y, Bai S, De Jin Y, et al. Nasality changes with age in normal Korean-speaking adults. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol, 2019; 12(1): 95. https://doi.org/10.21053/ceo.2....
Natour Y, Efthymiou E, Marie B, Darawsheh W. Quantifying nasality in Arabic speakers: preliminary data. IJAES, 2020; 20(2): 99–114. https://doi.org/10.33806/ijaes....
Nguyen VT, Lehes L, Truong TTH, Hoang TVA, Jagomägi T. Normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol, 2019; 44(2): 51–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/140154...
Murray E, Mendoza J, Gill S, Perkell J, Stepp C. Effects of biofeedback on control and generalization of nasalization in typical speakers. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 2016; 59(5): 1025–34. https://doi.org/10.1044/2016_J....
Stadler M, Hersh C. Nasometry, videofluoroscopy, and the speech pathologist’s evaluation and treatment. In: Surgery for Pediatric Velopharyngeal Insufficiency. Raol N, Hartnick CJ, editors. Basel: Karger Publishers; 2015; 76: 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1159/isbn.9....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top