More details
Hide details
World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw/Kajetany, Poland
Heart Failure and Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of the Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Sensory Organs, Warswa/Kajetany, Poland
Publication date: 2014-12-31
Corresponding author
Piotr H. Skarżyński   

Piotr H. Skarżyński, World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Mochnackiego 10 Str., 02-042 Warsaw, Poland, e-mail: p.skarzynski@inz.waw.pl
J Hear Sci 2014;4(4):51-58
Universal newborn hearing screening programs have been successfully implemented in many countries, and result in early intervention and therapy. However, there are also a significant number of schoolchildren who have hearing problems. This study presents the results of a program of hearing screening in schoolchildren, implemented in Poland and subsequently followed up in other countries in support of the European Consensus on school-age hearing screening. The aim was to compare the frequency of positive outcomes of hearing screening between the countries.

Material and Methods:
Screening outcomes from the following countries were compared: Poland, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Senegal, and the Ivory Coast. Screening was performed using the Sense Examination Platform, developed in Warsaw, Poland, by the Institute of Sensory Organs and the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing. The Platform comprises a central computer and a number of other portable computers communicating with the central database via the Internet, and can perform pure tone audiometry and other hearing, speech, and vision tests. It also records the answers to an audiological questionnaire. The test was considered to be positive when pure tone audiometry was higher than 20 dB HL for at least one frequency.

Among children aged 6–8 years from Poland the rate of positive results was 13.9%, while in children aged 12–15 years it was 8.5%. From the other European countries in which 462 children were tested, positive results occurred in 62 (13.4%). In four countries of Central Asia, positive outcomes of hearing screening were found in 216 children from 1011 tested (21.4%). In two African countries, positive results were found in 105 children from 321 tested (32.7%). The questionnaire surveys have shown that more than 30% of children with normal hearing have tinnitus, and the figure rises to nearly 50% in children with an abnormal result. Only 33% of children with hearing problems reported them to parents. In Poland, only 40% of children with hearing loss are under the care of a specialist, compared with only about half that number in children from Tajikistan and Moldova.

This study demonstrates that there are many children in primary schools who have hearing problems, and this situation may affect their education. The solution could be screening programs conducted directly in schools by trained school personnel (e.g. school nurses). The program of hearing screening in schoolchildren described here has helped to raise awareness of the importance of hearing conservation and inspired the development of new programs.

Watkin P, Baldwin M. The longitudinal follow up of a universal neonatal hearing screen: the implications for confirming deafness in childhood. Int J Audiol, 2012; 51(7): 519–28.
Skarżyński H, Senderski A, Mueller-Malesinska M, Kochanek K, Ratynska J. Program of early identification of hearing loss in newborns in Poland. International Congress Series, 2003; 1240: 269–71.
Patel H, Feldman M. Universal newborn hearing screening. Paediatr Child Health, 2011; 16(5): 301–10.
Burke MJ, Shenton RC, Taylor MJ. The economics of screening infants at risk of hearing impairment: an international analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2012; 76(2): 212–8.
Tanon-Anoh MJ, Sanogo-Gone D, Kouassi KB. Newborn hearing screening in a developing country: Results of a pilot study in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2010; 74: 188–91.
Ahmad A, Mohamad I, Mansor S, Daud MK, Sidek D. Outcome of a newborn hearing screening program in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia: the first five years. Ann Saudi Med, 2011; 31(1): 24–8.
Dantas MB, Anjos CA, Camboim ED, Pimentel MC. Results of a neonatal hearing screening program in Maceió. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol, 2009; 75(1): 58–63.
Nelson HD, Bougatsos C, Nygren P. Universal Newborn Hearing Screening: Systematic Review to Update the 2001 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.
Uloziene I, Grandori F. The European project AHEAD II on newborn hearing screening. International Congress Series, 2003; 1240: 329–32.
Garabli H, Genc GA, Kayikci MEK, Turkyilmaz MD, Ozturk B, Karabulut E, Korkmaz A, Belgin E. Hearing screening protocols of babies with hearing loss risk factors in Turkey. Int Adv Otol, 2010; 6(2): 216–22.
Mueller-Malesinska M, Skarżyński H, Oltarzewski M, Szymborski J, Ratynska J. Project of the countrywide data collecting system for neonatal hearing screening programme in Poland. Scand Audiol Suppl, 2001; 52: 197–8.
Skarżyński H, Piotrowska A, Szaflik J, Luxon L, Zehnhoff-Dinnesen A, Kaufmann-Meyer M et al. European consensus statement on hearing, vision, and speech screening in pre-school and school-age children. J Hear Sci, 2011; 1(2): 89–90.
Skarżyński H, Piotrowska A, Kamyk P, Czupryniak A, Saniewska-Kilim A, Włodarczyk A et al. EU Council Conclusion on early detection and treatment of communication disorders in children, including the use of e-health tools and innovative solutions. J Hear Sci, 2012; 2(1): 49–50.
Skarżyński H, Kochanek K, Senderski A, Skarżyński PH, Ludwikowski M, Kopaczewski M, Bruski L. Organization of the hearing screening examinations in Polish schools in rural areas and small towns. Cochlear Implants Int, 2010; 11(Suppl.1): 143–7.
Skarżyński PH, Kochanek K, Skarżyński H, Senderski A, Wysocki J, Szkielkowska A et al. Hearing Screening Program in School Age-children in Western Poland. Journal of International Advanced Otology, 2011; 7(2): 194–200.
Jerger J, Jerger S. Measurement of hearing in adults. In: Paparella MM, Shumrick DA (eds.). Otolaryngology (2nd ed). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1980, p. 1226.
Rozporządzenie Ministra Gospodarki, Pracy i Polityki Społecznej z dnia 30 stycznia 2004 r. w sprawie wymagań metrologicznych, którym powinny odpowiadać audiometry tonowe (Dz. U. Nr 24 poz. 214 dn. 20.02.2004) [in Polish].
Skarżyński H, Rogowski M, Bartnik G, Fabijańska A: Organization of tinnitus management in Poland. Acta Otolaryngol, 2000; 120(2): 225–6.
Barros Coelho C, Ganz Sanchez T, Tyler RS. Tinnitus in children and associated risk factors. Prog Brain Res, 2007; 166: 179–91.
Møller AR. Tinnitus: presence and future. Prog Brain Res, 2007; 166: 3–16.
ilgen C, Sezer B, Kirazli T, Gunbay T. Tinnitus in temporomandibular disorders: electrophysiological aspects. Int Adv Otol, 2010; 6(2): 167–72.
Skarżyński H, Czyżewski A, Senderski A, Kochanek K. “I can hear”: a system for universal hearing screening in school age children. Organization and first results. International Congress Series, 2003; 1240: 325–7.
arafraz M, Ahmadi K. A practical screening model for hearing loss in Iranian school-aged children. World J Pediatr, 2009; 5(1): 46–50.
Niskar AS, Kieszak SM, Holmes A, Esteban E, Rubin C, Brody DJ. Prevalence of hearing loss among children 6 to 19 years of age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA, 1998; 279(14): 1071–5.
Toner JG, Mains B. Pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry in the detection of middle ear effusion, Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci, 1990, 15(2): 121–3.
Monasta L, Ronfani L, Marchetti F, Montico M, Vecchi Brumatti L, Bavcar A et al. Burden of disease caused by otitis media: systematic review and global estimates. PLoS One, 2012; 7(4): e36226.
Georgalas C, Xenellis J, Davilis D, Tzangaroulakis A, Ferekidis E. Screening for hearing loss and middle-ear effusion in schoolage children, using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions: a feasibility study. J Laryngol Otol, 2008; 122: 1299–304.
Oyewumi AM, Adejumo OR. An investigation of hearing loss among school age children through audiological assessment in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Elementary Education Online, 2011; 10(1): 1–11.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top