Sandhya Vinay 1, A-F
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Audiology group, Institute of Neuromedicine and Neurosciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article;
Sandhya Vinay   

Audiology group, Institute of Neuromedicine and Neurosciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Tungasletta 2, 7491, Trondheim, Norway
Submission date: 2022-03-24
Final revision date: 2022-05-12
Acceptance date: 2022-05-23
Publication date: 2022-06-30
J Hear Sci 2022;12(2):20–35
Speech perception is multisensory, relying on auditory as well as visual information from the articulators. Watching articulatory gestures which are either congruent or incongruent with the speech audio can change the auditory percept, indicating that there is a complex integration of auditory and visual stimuli. A speech segment is comprised of distinctive features, notably voice onset time (VOT) and place of articulation (POA). Understanding the importance of each of these features for audiovisual (AV) speech perception is critical. The present study investigated the perception of AV consonant-vowel (CV) syllables with various VOTs and POAs under two conditions: diotic incongruent and dichotic congruent.

Material and methods:
AV stimuli comprised diotic and dichotic CV syllables with stop consonants (bilabial /pa/ and /ba/; alveolar /ta/ and /da/; and velar /ka/ and /ɡa/) presented with congruent and incongruent video CV syllables with stop consonants. There were 40 righthanded normal hearing young adults (20 females, mean age 23 years, SD = 2.4 years) and 20 males (mean age 24 years, SD = 2.1 years) who participated in the experiment.

In the diotic incongruent AV condition, short VOT (voiced CV syllables) of the visual segments were identified when auditory segments had a CV syllable with long VOT (unvoiced CV syllables). In the dichotic congruent AV condition, there was an increase in identification of the audio segment when the subject was presented with a video segment congruent to either ear, in this way overriding the otherwise presented ear advantage in dichotic listening. Distinct visual salience of bilabial stop syllables had greater visual influence (observed as greater identification scores) than velar stop syllables and thus overrode the acoustic dominance of velar syllables.

The findings of the present study have important implications for understanding the perception of diotic incongruent and dichotic congruent audiovisual CV syllables in which the stop consonants have different VOT and POA combinations. Earlier findings on the effect of VOT on dichotic listening can be extended to AV speech having dichotic auditory segments.