ORIGINAL ARTICLE
HEARING LOSS IN SHIPYARD WORKERS AND BATTLE CRUISER EMPLOYEES: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY
Christodoulos Dimakis 1, 2, A-G  
,   Alexandros Delidis 1, A-G  
,   Panagiotis Theodosiadis 3, A-B  
,   Konstantinos Soulantikas 2, A-G  
,   Athanasia Gortsali 2, A  
,   Thomas Nikolopoulos 1, A-G  
 
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1
ENT, University General Hospital Attikon, Greece
2
ENT, Naval Hospital of Athens, Greece
3
Ophthalmology, University General Hospital Attikon, Greece
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article;
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Christodoulos Dimakis   

ENT, University General Hospital Attikon, rimini 1, 12462, Athens, Greece
Submission date: 2020-04-22
Final revision date: 2020-07-28
Acceptance date: 2020-09-04
Publication date: 2020-11-16
 
J Hear Sci 2020;10(3):43–50
 
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ABSTRACT
Background:
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a common occupational disease that both shipyard and battle cruiser workers may encounter, since they are both exposed to hazardous noise levels. However, both white- and blue-collar workers are simultaneously exposed to possible daily risk-factors of incident tinnitus and subsequent hearing loss (HL), such as caffeine and smoking. The aim of the present prospective study is to investigate the prevalence of HL in these working groups of the Greek Navy and the Hellenic Shipyard SA (HSY) in Skaramanga, Greece, and to look at the correlation between OHL and hazardous noise levels as well as other individual factors.

Material and methods:
During 2015–17, multiple choice questionnaires including questions referring to socio-demographic information, educational level, and daily habits were administered, and audiograms were performed, to 120 male white- and blue-collar workers, aged 23–30 years old. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v.15.

Results:
HL in battle cruiser employees was correlated with occupational noise and individual factors such as caffeine, smoking, and educational level. Additionally, HL in shipyard employees was correlated with occupational noise, alcohol and caffeine intake, smoking, and educational level. A higher level of HL appeared to be correlated with higher levels of occupational noise, lower educational level, and larger consumption of caffeine, alcohol, and smoking. Dietary habits were non-significantly statistically correlated with HL in both types of workers.

Conclusions:
HL is a disease strongly related to the Navy and the shipyard industry. Therefore, constant monitoring of workers, implementation of hearing conservation programs, and using preventive measures are the cornerstone of preventing and treating HL. More research of HL in Navy employees should be conducted.