Marek Porowski 1, A-B,E-F  
,   Henryk Skarżyński 1, A,E,   Piotr H. Skarżyński 1, 2, 3, A,E,   Andrzej Pastuszak 1, F
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Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Surgery Clinic, World Hearing Centre, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw/Kajetany, Poland
Heart Failure and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Department of the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Sensory Organs, Warsaw/Kajetany, Poland
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article;
Marek Porowski   

Marek Porowski, M.D., Ph.D., World Hearing Center of the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing ul. Mokra 17, Kajetany n. Warsaw, 05-830 Nadarzyn, Poland, e-mail:
Publication date: 2020-04-07
J Hear Sci 2019;9(1):9–13
This paper reviews the literature on patients with oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (OAVD, Goldenhar syndrome) in the context of methods to improve their hearing, an area of interest to otorhinolaryngologists, audiologists, and phoniatrists. The papers reviewed describe individual cases and groups of patients diagnosed with the syndrome. They are of interest due to the range of therapeutic approaches used and the percentage of favourable results. The available literature is sparse, particularly in terms of improving hearing in OAVD. In these patients, degrees of hearing loss or deafness are major problems resulting from complex external, middle, and inner ear defects, which can also lead to speech development disorders. There is therefore a need for a closer look at the syndrome, including how to identify patients, indications for surgical treatment, use of other methods to improve hearing, and methods of rehabilitation.
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