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Faculty of Knowledge and Science, Amazon, Brazil
Child and Adolescent Heath Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Teleaudiology and Screening, World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Heart Failure and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Sensory Organs, Warsaw, Poland
Audiology and ENT Clinic, University of Ferrara – UNIFE, Ferrara, Italy
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article;
Publication date: 2019-06-30
Corresponding author
Milaine Dominici Sanfins   

Milaine Dominici Sanfins, Faculty of Medical Science – State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Rua Jacutinga, 220 – apto 12, Moema, São Paulo, Brazil. CEP: 04515-030, Telephone: +55 11 97060-3838, e-mail:
J Hear Sci 2019;9(2):9-16
The aim of this review is to compare published FFR studies for groups of musicians and non-musicians. Musicians are taken to be those who have used their instrument at least twice a week for many years. The review considers sample size, age, gender, native language, preliminary and complementary assessments, equipment, stimuli, objective results, and conclusions of the studies. Medline/PubMed and Web of Science databases were accessed. Keywords were restricted to English Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and included: auditory brainstem response, speech ABR, speech perception, frequency following response, musicians. The search identified 140 articles published between 2008 and 2015. After filtering the total number of papers according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 studies remained. Analysis showed that individuals with musical experience, that is, play a musical instrument at least 2 to 3 hours per week, show an improved development of their FFR. Musical experience improves a broad range of abilities: detection, recognition, and discrimination of sound stimuli are processed more accurately and effectively in musicians. The improvement also relates to the encoding of speech, facilitating literacy. Assessment by FFR allows neural changes from musical training to be monitored.
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