More details
Hide details
Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, U.S.A.
Publication date: 2016-06-30
Corresponding author
Frank Musiek   

Frank Musiek, Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, 1131 E 2nd Street, Tucson, AZ 85719, U.S.A., e-mail: fmusiek@email.arizona.edu
J Hear Sci 2016;6(2):29-39
The angular gyrus (AG) is an association area of the human cerebral cortex that plays a role in several processes, including auditory function. However, the precise anatomical location of the AG is not entirely clear. There are two common approaches for locating the AG based on gyral and sulcal landmarks: the ‘parallel’ and ‘count-back’ methods (as termed by the present authors). These two techniques do not always point to the same location on the cortex, thus making the macroanatomical locus of the AG rather ambiguous.

Twenty high-resolution brain MRIs of normal, right-handed human subjects chosen from an online database (OASIS).

MRIs were sequentially chosen from OASIS and analyzed in MRIcron using two different visualization techniques: 1) skull-stripped surface renderings, and 2) serial sagittal slices. The AG was demarcated in the left and right hemisphere of each brain, as defined by the parallel and count-back methods. The reliability of each method for locating the AG was systematically assessed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, based on measures of hemispheric laterality

Results and discussion:
Examination of both methods for locating the AG showed poorer reliability in the left hemisphere compared to the right for both surface and more medial sites. Several anatomical factors were identified that compromised the reliability of the two methods.

Our finding of poor reliability between the parallel and count-back methods suggests that the AG is sometimes difficult to identify, particularly in the left hemisphere. This places the traditional gross anatomical methods for locating the AG in question. Development of new techniques to define this area of human neuroanatomy is needed.

Démonet JF, Chollet F, Ramsay S, Cardebat D, Nespoulous JL, Wise R et al. The anatomy of phonological and semantic processing in normal subjects. Brain, 1992; 115: 1753–68.
Démonet JF, Price C, Wise R, Frackowiak RSJ. Differential activation of right and left posterior sylvian regions by semantic and phonological tasks: a positron-emission tomography study in normal human subjects. Neurosci Lett, 1994; 182: 25–28.
Price CJ, Moore CJ, Humphreys GW, Wise RJ. Segregating semantic from phonological processes during reading. J Cogn Neurosci, 1997; 9: 727–33.
Mummery CJ, Patterson K, Hodges JR, Price CJ. Functional neuroanatomy of the semantic system: divisible by what? J Cogn Neurosci, 1998; 10: 766–77.
Devlin JT, Matthews PM, Rushworth MF. Semantic processing in the left inferior prefrontal cortex: a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study. J Cogn Neurosci, 2003;15: 71–84.
Seghier ML, Fagan E, Price CJ. Functional subdivisions in the left angular gyrus where the semantic system meets and diverges from the default network. J Neurosci, 2010; 30: 16809–17.
Brodmann K. Brodmann’s Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex. Trans. Garey LJ. 3rd ed. London: Springer Science & Business Media; 2007.
Lee H1, Devlin JT, Shakeshaft C, Stewart LH, Brennan A, Glensman J et al. Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain. J Neurosci, 2007; 27: 1184–89.
Webster D. Neuroscience of communication. 2nd ed. San Diego: Singular Publishing; 1999.
Musiek F, Baran J. The auditory system: anatomy, physiology and clinical correlates. Boston: Pearson Education; 2007.
Rubens AB. Anatomical asymmetries of human cerebral cortex. In: Harnad S, Doty RW, Goldstein L, Jaynes J, Krauthamer G (eds.), Lateralization in the nervous system. New York: Academic Press; 1977, 503–13.
Tzourio-Mazoyer N, Landeau B, Papathanassiou D. Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain. Neuroimage, 2002;15: 273–89.
Caspers S, Eickhoff SB, Geyer S, Scheperjans F, Mohlberg H, Zilles K et al. The human inferior parietal lobule in stereotaxic space. Brain Struct Funct, 2008; 212: 481–95.
Eggert LD, Sommer J, Jansen A, Kircher T, Konrad C. Accuracy and reliability of automated gray matter segmentation pathways on real and simulated structural magnetic resonance images of the human brain. PLoS One, 2012; 7(9): e45081.
Eberstaller O. Das Stirnhirn. Wein and Leipzig: Urban and Schwarzenberg; 1890.
Naidich TP, Valavanis AG, Kubik S. Anatomic relationships along the low‐middle convexity: part I – normal specimens and magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurg, 1995; 36: 517–32.
Brodmann K. Brodmann’s Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex. Trans. Garey LJ. Springer Science & Business Media. 2007; chapter IV, p. 117.
Ribas GC. The cerebral sulci and gyri. Neurosurgical Focus, 2010; 28: E2.
Seghier ML. The angular gyrus multiple functions and multiple subdivisions. Neuroscientist, 2013;19(1): 43–61.
Grabner RH, Ansari D, Koschutnig K, Reishofer G, Ebner F. The function of the left angular gyrus in mental arithmetic: evidence from the associative confusion effect. Human Brain Mapping, 2013; 34(5): 1013–24.
Berry I, Démonet JF, Warach S, Viallard G, Boulanouar K, Franconi JM et al. Activation of association auditory cortex demonstrated with functional MRI. Neuroimage, 1995; 2: 215–19.
Binder JR, Frost JA, Hammeke TA, Rao SM, Cox RW. Function of the left planum temporale in auditory and linguistic processing. Brain, 1996; 119: 1239–47.
Zhang Z, Shi J, Yuan Y, Hao G, Yao Z, Chen N. Relationship of auditory verbal hallucinations with cerebral asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia: an event-related fMRI study. J Psychiat Res, 2008; 42: 477–86.
Marcus DS, Wang TH, Parker J, Csernansky JG, Morris JC, Buckner RL. Open access series of imaging studies (OASIS): cross-sectional MRI data in young, middle aged, nondemented, and demented older adults. J Cogn Neurosci, 2007; 19: 1498–507.
Connolly CJ. External morphology of the primate brain. Springfield (IL): C.C. Thomas; 1950.
Ochiai T1, Grimault S, Scavarda D, Roch G, Hori T, Rivière D et al. Sulcal pattern and morphology of the superior temporal sulcus. Neuroimage, 2004;22: 706–19.
Steinmetz H, Ebeling U, Huang Y, Kahn T. Sulcus topography of the parietal opercular region: an anatomic and MR study. Brain Lang, 1990; 38: 515–33.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top