Manuscript Preparation
 
Submissions to Journal of Hearing Science should accord with the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” (N Engl J Med, 1997; 336: 309–15, or J Pharmacol Pharmacother, 2010; 1: 42–58).

File Format
Manuscript files should be in DOC or DOCX formats. The text should use one-and-a-half spacing and a 12-point typeface. All margins should be 2.5 cm (1 inch). We reserve the right to adjust the format of an article.

Length
Manuscripts can be any length, although brevity is encouraged.

Language
The language of the journal is English.

Manuscript Files
Your complete manuscript file should contain the following elements*:

1. Title,
2. Abstract,
3. Main text/ manuscript body,
4. References,
5. Legends of figures/ tables/ charts/ photographs.
* To keep the review double-blind, do not include authors and addresses.

Other elements should be placed in separate files. These files will be:
1. Acknowledgements (not sent to reviewers),
2. Figures, tables, charts, and photographs (separately or together).

Title
A title of a paper should be concise, precise, and it should describe the paper’s subject. It should contain the main keywords to increase its visibility on the Internet.

Abstract. The abstract should be clear, easily readable, and provide a comprehensive summary of the article. It should not exceed 250 words. Preferably, it should consist of paragraphs labeled Introduction, Material and methods, Results, and Conclusions, although the format may differ depending on the article type. Each section should begin on a new line and briefly describe the purpose of the study, how the investigation was performed, the most important results, and the principal conclusions. NOTE: Polish authors are requested to submit an abstract in English and Polish.

Key words. Some 3 to 6 words or short phrases should be supplied, preferably those in the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh).

Main Text / Manuscript Body. The text of the article should be divided into sections corresponding to those in the abstract.

1. Introduction should contain the scientific rationale and aim of the study or, in the case of a review, the purpose of the article.

2. Material and methods should clearly describe how the experiments were done and how experimental subjects (patients, controls, or laboratory animals) were selected. It should list age, gender, criteria for inclusion and exclusion, randomisation, and masking (blinding) method.

Protocols for data acquisition, procedures, investigated parameters, methods of measurements, and apparatus should be described in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. Names and references to established methods should be given. References and a brief description should be provided for methods that have been published but are not well known, whereas new or substantially modified methods should be described in full. The reasons for using particular methods should be provided, along with an evaluation of their limitations. Drugs and other chemicals should be precisely identified, including generic name, dose, and route of administration.

Statistical methods should be described in enough detail to enable verification of the results.

Provide information on how informed consent was obtained from patients. Studies involving patients and volunteers must state in the main text that informed consent was obtained. Where there is any risk of breach of privacy (e.g. in a clinical photograph or in case details), the patient’s written consent to publication must be obtained and copied to the journal. Information indicating approval of a local ethics committee should also be provided.

The methodology of the review paper should describe how the authors made the selection of the literature included in their paper. We advise you to follow the PRISMA guidelines and indicate how the literature selection was made, including such elements as databases, keywords used, combinations of keywords used, time window used for the search, inclusion and exclusion criteria, number of papers excluded and included in the review (https://prisma-statement.org/PRISMAStatement/Checklist or https://prisma-statement.org/PRISMAStatement/FlowDiagram).

3. Results should concisely summarise the findings. Keep tables and figures to the minimum needed to explain the argument of the paper and support its conclusions. Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Give numbers of observations and report exclusions or losses such as dropouts from a clinical trial. Report treatment complications.

4. Discussion should deal only with new and/or important aspects of the study. Discuss implications of the findings and their limitations. This section should compare the results with those of other investigations.

5. Conclusions should be linked to the goals of the study. State new hypotheses when warranted and include recommendations when appropriate. Avoid unqualified statements or conclusions not supported by the results.

Headings
Limit manuscript sections and sub-sections to 3 heading levels. Make sure heading levels are clearly indicated in the manuscript text.

Acknowledgments
List here all contributors who have assisted in the study but do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as technical assistants, writing assistants, or head of department (the latter must contribute more than just general support). Financial and other material support should be disclosed and acknowledged. To keep the review double-blind, this separate file is not sent to reviewers.

References
References must be up-to-date and numbered in the order they are cited. References should be chosen for their importance, accessibility, and for the further reading opportunities they provide. List all authors when there are 6 or fewer; when there are 7 or more, list the first 6 then add ‘et al.’. Avoid using abstracts or review papers as references. Unpublished observations and personal communications cannot be used as references; if essential, such material should be incorporated at appropriate places in the text.

Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks, beginning with “http:” or “https:”, but without underlining.

The following set out the style of the most common reference types. Authors are referred to recent issues of J Hear Sci for the format of other types of references.

Journal article
Sulkowski WJ, Kochanek K, Jalocha-Kaczka A, Owczarek K, Olszewski J. Music-induced hearing loss in school-age children: data from a questionnaire, otological examination, and audiometry. J Hear Sci, 2018; 8(2): 9–15. https://doi.org/10.17430/1002722

Journal non-English article
Przybyłowski T, Chazan R, Balcerzak J, Niemczyk K. [Non-surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea]. Otolaryngologia, 2005; 4(1): 11–8 [in Polish].

Book
Martin FN, Clark JG. Introduction to Audiology (13th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education; 2018.

Chapter in a book
Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Mechanisms of mammalian otoacoustic emission. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper AN, editors. Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions. New York: Springer; 2008, 305–42.

Website materials
Hain T. How migraine causes dizziness. Available from: https://dizziness-and-balance.com/disorders/central/migraine/how_migraine.html [Accessed 23.04.2019].

We encourage authors to use Zotero (www.zotero.org) – free reference management software – when preparing articles. We have prepared a digital reference style for the Zotero online database (https://www.zotero.org/styles/journal-of-hearing-science) and this will ensure your manuscript meets our bibliographic requirements. To avoid typesetting problems please remove all Zotero field codes and unlink from the Zotero library.

Tables, Figures, Photographs
Tables should be submitted in a separate editable file. Do not submit tables as images. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Identify statistical measures of variations such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean. Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules.

Figures should be professionally drawn. Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication each item will still be legible.

Photographs can be color or black and white with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters must contrast with the background. If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or accompanied by written permission for use.

Tables, figures, and photographs should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text. Be sure each item is cited in the text. If a figure, photograph, or data contained in a table has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is required for all matter except documents in the public domain.

Captions for tables, figures, and photographs should be numbered using Arabic numerals and gathered together at the end of the main manuscript starting on a separate page. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of a table, figure, or photograph, identify and explain each one clearly in the caption. Describe scale bars and identify the method of staining.

Units of Measurement
Measurements should be reported in metric (SI) units. Non-SI units can be added in parentheses.

Abbreviations and Symbols
Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text (unless it is a standard unit of measurement). Use standard abbreviations; any nonstandard abbreviations should be given in brackets. Sometimes a list of abbreviations is appropriate, and this then appears as a separate unnumbered table.

Permissions
Material taken from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permission for reproduction. Permission in writing is needed from at least one author of papers in press, unpublished data, and personal communications.

Patient Confidentiality
Authors of clinical papers must ensure the privacy of patients. If it is possible to identify a patient from a case report, illustration, or paper, J Hear Sci requires written consent of the patient or their guardian to publish the data. Descriptions of race, ethnicity, or culture of a subject should only be used when they are relevant to the medical condition in the study. When categorizing by race, ethnicity, or culture the terms should be as illustrative as possible and reflect the names these groups themselves use.