Instructions for authors

1. Editorial Policy and General Information

The Journal of Hearing Science is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original articles in all areas of otolaryngology, audiology, phoniatrics, and rhinology. J Hear Sci is issued four times per year both in printed form and electronically at J Hear Sci is primarily an electronic open access (OA) journal, but print copies can be ordered on request.

J Hear Sci editors endorse the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki and expect that all investigations involving humans will have been performed in accordance with these principles. For animal experimentation reported in the journal, it is expected that investigators will have observed the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education issued by the New York Academy of Sciences Ad Hoc Committee on Animal Research. All human and animal studies must have been approved by the investigator’s institutional review board.

The Editorial Board considers original articles in experimental and clinical medicine and related disciplines for publication, with the understanding that neither the manuscript nor any part of its text, tables, or figures have been published previously in print or electronically and are not under consideration elsewhere. Copies of closely related manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor along with the main manuscript. J Hear Sci discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study. J Hear Sci expects all contributions to be entirely original and the editorial office checks all manuscripts with a computer program designed to detect copied text. We take the issue of plagiarism seriously, and if a manuscript shows signs of unoriginality, it is automatically rejected and the author and their institution asked for explanations.

It is understood that all authors listed on a manuscript have agreed to its submission. Each submission package should include a statement signed by the corresponding author that the work has not been published previously, is completely original, and has not been submitted elsewhere for review.

2. Types of Articles

Original Articles – full reports of research data.
Review Papers – comprehensive summaries of research on a certain topic, or a perspective on the state of a field and where it is heading.
Case Studies – findings related to individual cases.
Book Reviews and Conference Reports – a systematic, critical, and up-to-date overview of a given topic.
Hypothesis Papers – novel, well-argued hypotheses that open up important new perspectives.

3. Preparation of Manuscripts

In general, submissions to J Hear Sci should accord with the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” (N Engl J Med, 1997; 336: 309–15).

Text should use one-and-a-half spacing and a 12-point typeface. Margins should be 2.5 cm (1 inch) at top, bottom, right, and left. We reserve the right to adjust the format of an article.

Main Manuscript File

To ensure our policy of double-blind review works effectively, do not include the usual list of authors and affiliations here (you will be asked to list all necessary data regarding the authors when submitting the paper). Check that the Word-Options-General properties box does not include a user name. Your complete manuscript file should contain the following elements: title, abstract, main text (typically divided into background, material and methods, results, conclusions), and legends of figures/tables/charts/photographs. Other elements should be placed in separate files. These files will be (i) acknowledgements (also not sent to reviewers); and (ii) figures, tables, charts, and photographs (separately or together).

Abstract. The abstract should not exceed 250 words. Preferably, it should consist of paragraphs labeled Background, Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusion, although the format may differ depending on the article type. Each section should begin on a new line and briefly describe the purpose of the study, how the investigation was performed, the most important results, and the principal conclusions.

Key Words. Some 3 to 6 words or short phrases should be supplied, preferably those in the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (

The text of the article should be divided into sections corresponding to those in the abstract.

Background should contain the scientific rationale and aim of the study or, in the case of a review, the purpose of the article.

Material and methods should clearly describe how the experiments were done and how experimental subjects (patients, controls, or laboratory animals) were selected. It should list age, gender, criteria for inclusion and exclusion, randomisation, and masking (blinding) method.

Protocols for data acquisition, procedures, investigated parameters, methods of measurements, and apparatus should be described in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. Names and references to established methods should be given. References and a brief description should be provided for methods that have been published but are not well known, whereas new or substantially modified methods should be described in full. The reasons for using particular methods should be provided, along with an evaluation of their limitations. Drugs and other chemicals should be precisely identified, including generic name, dose, and route of administration.

Statistical methods should be described in enough detail to enable verification of the results.

Provide information on how informed consent was obtained from patients. Studies involving patients and volunteers should state in the main text that informed consent was obtained. Where there is any risk of breach of privacy (e.g. in a clinical photograph or in case details), the patient’s written consent to publication must be obtained and copied to the journal. Information indicating approval of a local ethics committee should also be provided.

Results should concisely summarise the findings. Keep tables and figures to the minimum needed to explain the argument of the paper and support its conclusions. Do not duplicate data appearing in graphs and tables. Give numbers of observations and report exclusions or losses such as dropouts from a clinical trial. Report treatment complications.

Discussion should deal only with new and/or important aspects of the study. Discuss implications of the findings and their limitations. This section should compare the results with those of other investigations.

Conclusions should be linked to the goals of the study. State new hypotheses when warranted and include recommendations when appropriate. Avoid unqualified statements or conclusions not supported by the results.

Acknowledgements. List here all contributors who have assisted in the study but do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as technical assistants, writing assistants, or head of department (the latter must contribute more than just general support). Financial and other material support should be disclosed and acknowledged. To keep the review double-blind, this separate file is not sent to reviewers.

References must be up-to-date and numbered in the order they are cited. References should be chosen for their importance, accessibility, and for the further reading opportunities they provide. List all authors when there are 6 or fewer; when there are 7 or more, list the first 3 then add ‘et al.’. Avoid using abstracts or review papers as references. Unpublished observations and personal communications cannot be used as references; if essential, such material should be incorporated at appropriate places in the text.

The following set out the style of the most common reference types. Authors are referred to recent issues of J Hear Sci for the format of other types of references.

Journal article
Sulkowski WJ, Kochanek K, Jalocha-Kaczka A, Owczarek K, Olszewski J. Music-induced hearing loss in school-age children: data from a questionnaire, otological examination, and audiometry. J Hear Sci, 2018; 8(2): 9–15.

Martin FN, Clark JG. Introduction to Audiology (13th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education; 2018.

Chapter in a book
Shera CA, Guinan JJ. Mechanism of mammalian otoacoustic emission. In: Manley GA, Fay RR, Popper, AN, editors. Active Processes and Otoacoustic Emissions. New York: Springer; 2008, 305–42.

We encourage authors to use Zotero ( – free reference management software – when preparing articles. We have prepared a digital reference style for the Zotero online database ( and this will ensure your manuscript meets our bibliographic requirements. To avoid typesetting problems please remove all Zotero field codes and unlink from the Zotero library.

Tables, Figures, Photographs

Tables should be submitted in a separate editable file. Do not submit tables as images. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Identify statistical measures of variations such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean. Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules.

Figures should be professionally drawn. Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication each item will still be legible.

Photographs can be color or black and white. The resolution should be at least 300 dpi. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters must contrast with the background. If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or accompanied by written permission for use.

Tables, figures, and photographs should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text. Be sure each table, figure, and photograph is cited in the text. If a figure, photograph, or data contained in tables has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is required for all matter except documents in the public domain.

Captions for tables, figures, and photographs should be numbered using Arabic numerals and gathered together at the end of the main manuscript starting on a separate page. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of a table, figure, or photograph, identify and explain each one clearly in the caption. Describe scale bars and identify the method of staining.

Units of Measurement, Abbreviations, and Symbols

Units of Measurement. Measurements should be reported in metric (SI) units. Non-SI units can be added in parentheses.

Abbreviations and Symbols. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text (unless it is a standard unit of measurement). Use standard abbreviations. Any nonstandard abbreviation should be given in brackets. Sometimes a list of abbreviations is appropriate, and this then appears as a separate table.

4. Permissions

Material taken from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permission for reproduction. Permission in writing is needed from at least one author of papers in press, unpublished data, and personal communications.

5. Patient Confidentiality

Authors of clinical papers are obliged to ensure the privacy of patients. If it is possible to identify a patient from a case report, illustration, or paper, J Hear Sci requires written consent of the patient or their guardian to publish the data. Descriptions of race, ethnicity, or culture of a subject should be used only when it is believed they are relevant to the medical condition in the study. When categorising by race, ethnicity, or culture the terms used should be as illustrative as possible and reflect the names these groups themselves use.

6. Review Process

This journal uses double-blind review, which means that the identities of both reviewer and author are concealed from each other. Manuscripts are evaluated on the basis that they present new insights into the investigated topic, are likely to contribute to research progress, or to change clinical practice or thinking about a disorder.

Received manuscripts are first examined by the J Hear Sci editors. Manuscripts of low quality or which contain copied material are promptly rejected. Incomplete packages or manuscripts not prepared in the advised style will be sent back to authors without review. Authors are notified with a reference number upon registration of the manuscript at the Editorial Office, and manuscripts are then sent to independent experts for scientific evaluation. We encourage authors to suggest the names of possible reviewers, but we reserve the right of final selection. The evaluation process usually takes 1–3 months. Following a positive opinion of the independent reviewers, submitted papers are accepted for publication.

7. Conflict of Interests

Authors of research articles should disclose at the time of submission any financial arrangement they have with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product. Such information will be held in confidence while the paper is under review and will not influence the editorial decision, but if the article is accepted for publication, the editors will discuss with the authors the manner in which such information is to be communicated to the reader.

Because the essence of reviews is the selection and interpretation of the literature, J Hear Sci expects that authors of such articles will not have any financial interest in a company (or its competitor) that makes a product discussed in the article.

Journal policy requires that reviewers, associate editors, and editors reveal in a statement to the Editor-in-Chief any relationships they have that could be construed as causing a conflict of interest. The statement should include information about any financial relationships with commercial companies involved with the product under study.

8. Publishing Model and Author Fees

J Hear Sci is published using an open access model which allows all readers free access to articles. The submission, peer-review, and publishing of manuscripts is free of charge.

9. Sending a Manuscript to the Journal

Manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter signed by the lead author. This should include:
– A statement that there is no prior publication or submission elsewhere;
– A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest (see Section 8);
– A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors, and that all of them meet the requirements for genuine authorship;
– The name, email address, postal address, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with co-authors about revisions and final approval of proofs.

The letter should give any additional information that may be helpful to the editor, such as the category of the article.

The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permissions to reproduce published material, to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people, or to name people for their contributions.

10. Copyright

Upon acceptance, the authors grant J Hear Sci a non-exclusive licence to publish their article, although the authors retain copyright under a Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial–NoDerivatives 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). The licence allows anyone to download the article and share it with others so long as they credit the authors and source, do not change it in any way, and do not use it commercially. Once an article is accepted for publication, it is embargoed from reporting in the media until it appears on the J Hear Sci web site.

11. Disclaimer

Diligent efforts are made by the Editorial Board and publisher to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement appears in J Hear Sci. However, the data and opinions appearing in articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor, sponsor, or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher accepts no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any inaccurate or misleading statement. Efforts are made to ensure that drug doses and other quantities are presented accurately; nevertheless, readers are advised that methods and techniques involving drugs and other treatments described in the journal should only be followed if they accord with the manufacturer’s own published literature in the reader’s own country.