ORIGINAL ARTICLE
VARIABILITY OF DISTORTION PRODUCT OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS AT 10, 12, AND 16 KHZ: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland
2
World Hearing Center, Nadarzyn, Kajetany, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Edyta Piłka   

Edyta Piłka, Department of Experimental Audiology, World Hearing Center, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Mokra 17 Str., 05-830 Nadarzyn, Kajetany, Poland, Tel: +48 22 35 60 359, Fax: +48 22 35 60 367, e-mail: e.pilka@ifps.org.pl
Publication date: 2020-04-16
 
J Hear Sci 2014;4(4):59–64
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are usually measured up to 8 kHz. However some systems can measure DPOAEs up to 16 kHz. Therefore the aim of the study was to verify reliability of DPOAEs at 10, 12, and 16 kHz. The single- and multiple-fit options were compared.

Material and Methods:
DPOAEs were measured in subjects with normal hearing who had hearing thresholds better or equal to 25 dB HL for frequencies from 0.25 to 16 kHz. DPOAEs were measured at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 kHz. The main focus was on the 10–16 kHz range, while 1–8 kHz served as a comparison. Each recording session consisted of three measurements. The first two were made consecutively without taking out the probe – single-fit mode. The third measurement was made after taking out and refitting the probe – multiple-fit mode.

Results:
Results indicated that the inter-measurement variability was higher for frequencies in the 8–16 kHz range than in the 1–6 kHz range. Additionally, the variability was higher when multiple-fit was used compared to single-fit.

Conclusions:
Measurement of DPOAEs at frequencies higher than 8 kHz seems reliable; however, DPOAEs at these frequencies have greater variability than those at lower frequencies.

 
REFERENCES (25)
1.
Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK. Otoacoustic emissions. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2003; 11(5): 361–6.
 
2.
Hatzopoulos S, Grzanka A, Martini A, Konopka W. New clinical insights for transiently evoked otoacoustic emission protocols. Med Sci Monit, 2009; 15(8): CR403–8.
 
3.
Gorga MP, Neely ST, Bergman BM, Beauchaine KL, Kaminski JR, Peters J et al. A comparison of transient-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects. J Acoust Soc Am, 1993; 94(5): 2639–48.
 
4.
Robinson DW, Sutton GJ. Age effect in hearing: a comparative analysis of published threshold data. Audiology, 1979; 18(4): 320–34.
 
5.
Arnold DJ, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK. High-frequency hearing influences lower-frequency distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1999; 125(2): 215–22.
 
6.
Dreisbach LE, Torre P, Kramer SJ, Kopke R, Jackson R, Balough B. Influence of ultrahigh-frequency hearing thresholds on distortion-product otoacoustic emission levels at conventional frequencies. J Am Acad Audiol, 2008; 19(4): 325–36.
 
7.
Fabijańska A, Smurzyński J, Hatzopoulos S, Kochanek K, Bartnik G, Raj-Koziak D et al. The relationship between distortion product otoacoustic emissions and extended high-frequency audiometry in tinnitus patients. Part 1: normally hearing patients with unilateral tinnitus. Med Sci Monit, 2012; 18(12): CR765–70.
 
8.
Kuronen P, Sorri MJ, Pääkkönen R, Muhli A. Temporary threshold shift in military pilots measured using conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry after one flight. Int J Audiol, 2003; 42(1): 29–33.
 
9.
Fausti SA, Helt WJ, Phillips DS, Gordon JS, Bratt GW, Sugiura KM et al. Early detection of ototoxicity using 1/6th-octave steps. J Am Acad Audiol, 2003; 14(8): 444–50.
 
10.
Mello JM, Della-Rosa VA, Carvallo RM. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions at ultra-high frequencies in parents of individuals with autosomal recessive hearing loss. Codas, 2014; 26(1): 3–9.
 
11.
Driscoll C, Kei J, Hearn K, Walsh T, Swann S. Diagnostic accuracy of high-frequency distortion-product otoacoustic emission screening of schoolchildren with Down syndrome. J Hear Sci, 2014; 4(1): 9–17.
 
12.
Blinowska KJ, Jedrzejczak WW, Konopka W. Resonant modes and musical ratios in otoacoustic emissions. Biol Cybern, 2005; 93(5): 366–72.
 
13.
Kochanek KM, Śliwa LK, Puchacz K, Piłka A. Repeatability of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions in young adults. Med Sci Monit, 2015; 21: 36–43.
 
14.
Hatzopoulos S, Petruccelli J, Ciorba A, Martini A. Optimizing otoacoustic emission protocols for a UNHS program. Audiol Neurootol, 2009; 14(1): 7–16.
 
15.
Roede J, Harris FP, Probst R, Xu L. Repeatability of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in normally hearing humans. Audiology, 1993; 32(5): 273–81.
 
16.
Wagner W, Heppelmann G, Vonthein R, Zenner HP. Test-retest repeatability of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Ear Hear, 2008; 29(3): 378–91.
 
17.
Franklin DJ, McCoy MJ, Martin GK, Lonsbury-Martin BL. Test–retest reliability of distortion-product and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions. Ear Hear, 1992; 13(6): 417–29.
 
18.
Beattie RC, Kenworthy OT, Luna CA. Immediate and shortterm reliability of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. Int J Audiol, 2003; 42(6): 348–54.
 
19.
Bell A: How do middle ear muscles protect the cochlea? Reconsideration of the intralabyrinthine pressure theory. J Hear Sci, 2011; 1(2): 9–23.
 
20.
Owens JJ, McCoy MJ, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK. Otoacoustic emissions in children with normal ears, middle ear dysfunction, and ventilating tubes. Am J Otol, 1993; 14(1): 34–40.
 
21.
Dunckley KT, Dreisbach LE. Gender effects on high frequency distortion product otoacoustic emissions in humans. Ear Hear, 2004; 25(6): 554–64.
 
22.
Keppler H, Dhooge I, Maes L, D’haenens W, Bockstael A, Philips B et al. Transient-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions: a short-term test–retest reliability study. Int J Audiol, 2010; 49(2): 99-109.
 
23.
Sockalingam R, Lee Choi J, Choi D, Kei J. Test–retest reliability of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in children with normal hearing: a preliminary study. Int J Audiol, 2007; 46(7): 351–4. Erratum in: Int J Audiol, 2009; 48(6): 403.
 
24.
Dreisbach LE, Long KM, Lees SE. Repeatability of high-frequency distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in normalhearing adults. Ear Hear, 2006; 27(5): 466–79.
 
25.
Zebian M, Hensel J, Fedtke T, Vollbort S. Interpretation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions at higher frequencies. J Hear Sci, 2011; 1(3): 49–51.